Seed – A seed is an important part of a flowering plant. They give rise to a new plant. They may be of different shapes, colors and sizes. E.g. – Bean seed.
Germination – The process by which new plants grow from a seed is called germination. It is a process that takes place when the embryo within the seed becomes active and starts to grow into a young baby plant.
Root – It is the part of a plant that grows under the ground. It absorbs water and minerals from the soil. They also anchor the plant firmly in the soil and also bind the soil together.
Shoot – It is the aerial part of a plant (develops above the ground). It includes stems, leaves, buds, flowers & fruits.
Topsoil – Topsoil is the uppermost layer of the soil which is rich in organic matter & supports the growth of plants.
Tap root – Taproots have a main central root from which small, lateral roots come out. E.g.- Mustard, carrot, beetroot, parsley, china rose etc.
Fibrous root – Fibrous roots do not have a main root & all roots seem similar and arise from the same point. E.g.- Rice, wheat, maize, marigold, banana etc.
Burdock – It is a plant found all over the world. Its roots are used as food. Seeds and leaves of this plant are also used for medicinal purposes.
- They are the components present in food which are important for life & provide us energy, they are considered as building blocks for growth and repair.
- Major nutrients required for plants are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium.
Lateral root – Lateral roots are the smaller roots that come out from the main root and help anchor the plant into the soil.
Stem – It is the part of a plant present just above the ground. It helps in conduction of water and minerals absorbed by roots from the soil. It bears leaves, flowers and fruits.
Herb – Herbs are short plants, with green and delicate stems. Compared to other plants, these plants have very few branches and come off easily from the soil. E.g- Grass, Mint, and Wheat etc.
Shrub – Shrubs are medium-sized, woody plants taller than herbs and shorter than a tree. They have bushy, hard, and woody stems with many branches. Eg: Rose, Jasmine, Lemon and Tulsi.
Tree – Trees are big and tall plants. They have very thick, woody and hard stems called the trunk. The trunk gives rise to many branches that bear leaves, flowers and fruits. Eg : Mango, Banyan and Coconut.
Tender stem – The thin and delicate stems are called tender stems. For example Broccoli- we can eat the stalk and flower both.
Trunk – The thick and main stem of the tree from which branches grow is called trunk.
Creepers-Creepers are the plants that creep on the ground. They have very weak, long, thin stems that can not stand upright. Eg: Watermelon, Strawberry, Pumpkin and Sweet potatoes.
Climbers – Climbers have a very thin, long and weak stem which cannot stand upright but they can use support to grow. Eg: Pea plant, Grapevine, Sweet gourd, Money plant.
Grapevine – The stem of grape plants, which grows upward with the help of tendril.
Tendril – A tendril is a modified stem or leaf with a thread-like shape that is used by climbing plants for support.
Photosynthesis – Photosynthesis is a process of synthesis of food in plants using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight with the help of chlorophyll pigment.
Leaf – Leaf is a green flat part of a plant, it contains chlorophyll which helps in preparation of food by the process of photosynthesis.
Midrib –The thick prominent vein that runs along the middle of the lamina is called midrib. Midrib divides the surface of the lamina into two.
Vein – The lines on the leaf that comes out from a midrib are called veins.
Petiole – Petiole is the long, thin, stalk that connects the leaf blade to the stem.
Lamina – It is also known as leaf blade. It is generally the green, flat surface of the leaves.
Venation – The pattern or the arrangement of veins on the leaf is called venation. It can be either reticulate venation or parallel venation.
Reticulate Venation – The veins are arranged in a net-like fashion on both sides of midrib. E.g.: Rose plant, Hibiscus etc.
Parallel venation – In a parallel venation, the vein runs parallel to each other. E.g.: Maize, Banana etc.
Relation between different types of leaves and roots –
Leaf venation and the type of roots in a plant are related. Plants with fibrous roots have parallel venation in their leaves. Plants with tap roots have reticulate venation in their leaves.
Transpiration- Transpiration is the loss of water in the form of water vapour from aerial parts ( i.e parts which are exposed to the air ) of the plant.
Flower – Flowers are the most colorful part of a plant. It is also called the reproductive part as it carries the reproductive organs. Eg: Rose and Hibiscus.
Petal – Petal is the colorful part of a flower. It has fragrance and helps in attracting the insects for pollination.
Sepal – It is the green leaf-like part of the flower present below the petals. It protects the inner parts of the flower when it is a bud.
Stamen – The male reproductive part of the flower is called stamen. It consists of anther and filament.
Pistil – The female reproductive part of the flower is called Pistil. It consists of three parts- stigma, style and ovary.
Anther – The oval/round structures present on the top of the filament is anther. They produce pollen grains.
Filament – A long thread-like structure on the top of which anther is present.
Stigma – It is the topmost part of the pistil (female reproductive part of a flower) which receives the pollen grain.
Style – It is the long tube-like structure which connects stigma to the ovary.
Ovules – Ovules are present inside the ovary and develop into seed.
Incomplete flower– A complete flower is the one that consists of sepals, petals, stamens and pistils. If the flower lacks any one of these parts, then it is an incomplete flower. Example -Sweet corn.
Complete flower– A complete flower is the one that consists of sepals, petals, stamens and pistils. Example – Rose, Hibiscus.
Pollination- The transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma is known as pollination.
Fertilization- The fusion of male gamete and female gamete to form a zygote is known as fertilization.
Edible- Anything that can be eaten is known as edible.
Seed dispersal- The spreading of seeds to different places is known as seed dispersal.
Embryo- It is a stage in development of the zygote.
Conduction– It is the transfer of water and minerals from one part of the plant to another part.
Sessile leaves- Sessile leaves are directly attached to the stem without a petiole. Example- Saffron.
Mosses- Mosses are small non-flowering plants. They are predominantly found in aquatic environments.
Algae- Algae are organisms that are capable of performing photosynthesis and are mostly aquatic organisms.
Monocots- Monocots are the flowering plants in which the seeds have only one cotyledon. Example: Rice, Grass, Maize etc.
Dicots- Dicots are the flowering plants in which the seeds have two cotyledons. Example: Rose, Pea, Mango etc.
Experiment to test for the presence of starch in leaves –
Take a leaf in a test tube and pour alcohol solution till it completely covers the leaf. Now put the test tube in a beaker having water. Heat the beaker till all the green colour from the leaf comes out into the alcoholic solution in the test tube then take out the leaf and wash it with water and pour some iodine solution over it. The iodine solution is brown in colour but when it comes in contact with starch it turns blue-black, this confirms the presence of starch in the leaf.
Why should we boil the leaf in an alcohol solution – Leaf has to be boiled in alcohol so that chlorophyll pigment in the leaf is removed and the green colour of the leaf comes out. So that it should not interfere in our result.
Why are leaves green in colour – Leaves are green in colour due to presence of chlorophyll pigment.
Why are petals colourful – Petals are colourful so that they can attract insects for the process of pollination.
Example of Plants with joined sepals– Example of Plants with joined sepals are Hibiscus and Cotton.
Example of Plants with separate sepals – Example of Plants with separate sepals are Rose, Lily and Lotus.