Respiration – It is the process of breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen to release energy for carrying out life processes.
Why do we need energy?
We need energy for a variety of activities like to move from one place to another, run, walk, chew food, for the functioning of the organs in our body like the heart ,stomach and so on.
Nutrients – The components of food that are necessary for growth and development of our body are called nutrients. For example: Carbohydrate, protein, fats, vitamins and minerals .
Digestion – It is the process of breaking down the complex food substances into simpler substances.
Amino acid – Amino acids are organic compounds which combine to form proteins. Hence they are called as building blocks of proteins.
Respiratory system – The respiratory system is an organ system responsible for the exchange of gases in animals.
Nasal cavity – It is the chamber through which the inhaled air flows. It has mucus and hair.
Why is mucus important?
Mucus present in our nasal cavity helps to trap dust particles and germs which may otherwise enter the nasal cavity and can cause irritation. It also provides moisture to the air inhaled.
Nostrils – The two external openings of the nose are called nostrils.
Trachea – Trachea or the windpipe is the tube-like structure that allows passage of air into the lungs.
Why c- like cartilaginous rings present in the trachea?
A normal trachea has many rings made of cartilage. These rings are C-shaped and support the trachea by preventing it from collapsing.
Bronchi & Bronchioles – The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi which enter the lungs. These bronchi further branch into smaller bronchioles.
What are secondary bronchi and tertiary bronchi?
The secondary bronchi are the first subdivision of the main bronchi. The secondary bronchi are further divided into tertiary bronchi which eventually branch into bronchioles.
Mucous – It is a fluid secreted by the inner lining of the nasal cavity. It moistens the air entering the body and traps foreign particles.
Pharynx – It is the common passage for air and food, it opens into the trachea and the food pipe.
Larynx / Voice box – It is a hollow structure located at the top of the windpipe from where sound is produced.
Oesophagus – Oesophagus, also known as food pipe, is a long tube-like structure that connects the mouth to the stomach. It is an important part of the digestive system.
PERISTALSIS – Peristalsis is a contraction and relaxation of muscles of the food pipe which helps in movement of food in towards the stomach.
Epiglottis – The entrance to the windpipe or trachea is guarded by a flap called the epiglottis, it closes the windpipe at the time of swallowing food.
Why do we cough?
Incomplete closure of epiglottis during swallowing causes the food to enter the windpipe. Our body responds and expels this food out from the windpipe by the mechanism of coughing.
Alveoli – Alveoli are the tiny air sacs present at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. It plays an important role in gaseous exchange.
How gaseous exchange occurs?
When we breathe in air rich in oxygen it reaches the alveoli in the lungs, where the concentration/molecules of oxygen remains more as compared to the number of oxygen molecules in the blood vessels surrounding the alveoli, because of this difference in concentration diffusion of gaseous (oxygen and carbon dioxide) molecules occurs, oxygen molecules are taken up by RBCs and carbon dioxide is sent to the alveoli which is released out while we exhale.
Lungs – A pair of pink spongy elastic organs protected by the rib cage.
What is pulmonary?
Pulmonary is the term used in relation to the lungs.
Diaphragm – The diaphragm is a large dome shaped muscular sheet which forms the floor of the chest cavity, it contracts rhythmically while breathing which helps in expanding and contracting the space inside the lungs for inhaling and exhaling the air.
Breathing – The physical process of inhalation and exhalation of the air rich in oxygen is called breathing.
Gaseous exchange – Gaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli. It is the process of exchange of oxygen from the lungs to the cells and removal of carbon dioxide from the cells and given out through lungs .
Cellular respiration – Cellular respiration is the breakdown of glucose that produces energy. This takes place inside the cell. Energy is produced in the form of Adenosine triphosphate.
Tissue respiration – Tissue respiration refers to the exchange of gases between cells and tissue fluid.
What is internal & external respiration?
External Respiration is the exchange of gases with the external environment and the lungs.
Internal Respiration involves the exchange of gases between the wall of the alveoli and the blood capillaries, also called cellular respiration.
Inhalation – The process of taking in air rich in oxygen is called inhalation.
Exhalation – The process of giving out air rich in carbon dioxide is called exhalation.
Why do we take only oxygen while breathing although various gases are present in the atmosphere?
We do inhale all the gases present in the environment but they are not required in any process in our body so they are exhaled out in the same amount as inhaled only the oxygen molecules are taken up by the blood cells and carbon dioxide is released out.
Capillaries – Capillaries are very tiny blood vessels. It is made up of a single layer of cell.
Cell – The cell (from Latin cella, meaning “small room”) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms.
Breathing rate – Number of times the person breathes in a minute is called the breathing rate. On an average breathing rate is 12-15 breaths per minute.
What is the breathing rate of a baby/child?
The average breathing rate of a toddler(1-3 years of age) is 20-24 breaths per minute.
Why do children have more breathing rate than adults?
Children have a high breathing rate because their breaths are quicker as they have little space in their lungs to perform exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Chest cavity – Chest cavity is the chamber of the body which encloses the heart and the lungs. It is enclosed by the ribs, the vertebral column, and the sternum, or breastbone. It is separated from the abdominal cavity by a muscular sheet, the diaphragm.
Diffusion – The process of movement of molecules from the region of their higher concentration to the region of their lower concentration is called diffusion.
Mitochondria – Mitochondria is a cell organelle which helps in the production of energy. It is also called the powerhouse of the cell. The energy is produced in the form of ATP molecules.
ATP – Adenosine triphosphate is the energy molecule. The energy released during the process of respiration is stored in the chemical form as ATP.
Aerobic respiration: The process of breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration.
Glucose+oxygen ->Carbon Dioxide + water + Energy
Anaerobic respiration: The process of breaking down glucose in the absence of oxygen is called anaerobic respiration.
Glucose-> Alcohol + carbon dioxide+energy
Glucose-> lactic acid+energy (in our muscles)
Fermentation – Fermentation is the process of converting carbohydrates (glucose) to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms (yeast).
Lactic acid – Lactic acid is an organic acid. It is also known as milk acid.
Alcohol – Alcohol, also called by the chemical name ethanol, is a chemical that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits.
What is the Difference between breathing and respiration?
Breathing involves the process of inhaling oxygen rich air and exhaling carbon dioxide rich air. It is a physical process and does not involve production of energy, whereas Respiration is the process of breaking down glucose to produce energy which is then used by cells to carry out the cellular function. It takes place inside the cells.
- The chemical processes that occur in the body of living organisms is called a biochemical process.
- Eg: The food that we eat is converted into energy is a biochemical process.
Muscle cramp – A muscle cramp is a strong contraction of the muscles which causes it to tighten. This stiffness of muscle is very painful. A hot water bath or a massage can help in getting relief from the muscle cramps.
Why does hot water bath or massage give us relief from muscle cramps?
- Muscle cramps occur when there is anaerobic respiration taking place in our muscles. During anaerobic respiration, glucose gets converted into lactic acid during the absence of oxygen.
- A hot water bath or a massage can help in getting relief from the muscle cramps. These two things improve blood circulation, thereby increasing the supply of oxygen to the muscles. When there is a sufficient amount of oxygen supply, lactic acid breaks down into carbon dioxide and water.
- Example for anaerobic respiration
- Process of fermentation in yeast
- In human muscle cells
- A spiracle is the opening in the exoskeletons of insects which allows air to enter the trachea.
- Air enters the insect’s body through the spiracles. For example, in cockroaches, mosquito spiracles are present.
Tracheole – Tracheole is a fine respiratory tube of the trachea of an insect or a spider, part of the respiratory system. Tracheoles are about 1 µm in diameter, and they transport oxygen to cells.
Slimy – Covered with slime, which is wet and slippery
Earthworm – Earthworms are segmented worms. They are the common inhabitants of moist soil and feed on organic matter.
Amphibian – Amphibians are a class of animals which can survive both on the land and in the water. Eg: Frogs, Toads etc.
Gills – A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms which helps take up dissolved oxygen from water and release carbon dioxide.
Tadpoles – A tadpole is the young stage of an amphibian, it lives in water, has a tail and breathes through gills.
Dissolved meaning – To “dissolve” is defined as to become broken up or absorbed by something or to disappear into something else. When sugar becomes absorbed into water, this is an example of when sugar dissolves into water
Blood vessels – Blood vessels are a network of pathways through which blood travels throughout the body. Arteries and veins are the two primary types of blood vessels in the circulatory system of the body.
Blowholes – Usually dolphins and whales have a hold on the top of their head which is used by them for breathing. These holes are called the blow holes.
Stomata – Stomata are the minute openings, generally found in the lower side of leaves. They are typically found in plant leaves and can also be found in stems and other parts of plants.
Guard cells – The stomata consist of minute pores called stoma surrounded by a pair of guard cells. The guard cells are specialized, bean-shaped cells, which are found surrounding the stoma and are connected at both ends.
Root hair – A hair like outgrowth of a plant root that absorbs water and minerals from the soil is called root hair.